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sfdisk.c

/*
 * sfdisk version 3.0 - aeb - 950813
 *
 * Copyright (C) 1995  Andries E. Brouwer (aeb@cwi.nl)
 *
 * This program is free software. You can redistribute it and/or
 * modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
 * as published by the Free Software Foundation: either Version 1
 * or (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * A.V. Le Blanc (LeBlanc@mcc.ac.uk) wrote Linux fdisk 1992-1994,
 * patched by various people (faith@cs.unc.edu, martin@cs.unc.edu,
 * leisner@sdsp.mc.xerox.com, esr@snark.thyrsus.com, aeb@cwi.nl)
 * 1993-1995, with version numbers (as far as I have seen) 0.93 - 2.0e.
 * This program had (head,sector,cylinder) as basic unit, and was
 * (therefore) broken in several ways for the use on larger disks -
 * for example, my last patch (from 2.0d to 2.0e) was required
 * to allow a partition to cross cylinder 8064, and to write an
 * extended partition past the 4GB mark.
 *
 * The current program is a rewrite from scratch, and I started a
 * version numbering at 3.0.
 *    Andries Brouwer, aeb@cwi.nl, 950813
 *
 * Well, a good user interface is still lacking. On the other hand,
 * many configurations cannot be handled by any other fdisk.
 * I changed the name to sfdisk to prevent confusion. - aeb, 970501
 *
 * Changes:
 * 19990319 - Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@conectiva.com.br> - i18n
 * 20040428 - Jeroen Dobbelaere <jeroen.dobbelaere@acunia.com> - added PACKED
 * 20040824 - David A. Wheeler <dwheeler@dwheeler.com> - warnings to stderr
 */

#define PROGNAME "sfdisk"
#define VERSION "3.08"
#define DATE "040824"

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>           /* atoi, free */
#include <stdarg.h>           /* varargs */
#include <unistd.h>           /* read, write */
#include <fcntl.h>            /* O_RDWR */
#include <errno.h>            /* ERANGE */
#include <string.h>           /* index() */
#include <ctype.h>
#include <getopt.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/utsname.h>
#include <linux/unistd.h>     /* _syscall */
#include "nls.h"
#include "common.h"

#define SIZE(a)   (sizeof(a)/sizeof(a[0]))

/*
 * Table of contents:
 *  A. About seeking
 *  B. About sectors
 *  C. About heads, sectors and cylinders
 *  D. About system Ids
 *  E. About partitions
 *  F. The standard input
 *  G. The command line
 *  H. Listing the current situation
 *  I. Writing the new situation
 */
int exit_status = 0;

int force = 0;          /* 1: do what I say, even if it is stupid ... */
int quiet = 0;          /* 1: suppress all warnings */
/* IA-64 gcc spec file currently does -DLinux... */
#undef Linux
int Linux = 0;          /* 1: suppress warnings irrelevant for Linux */
int DOS = 0;            /* 1: shift extended partitions by #sectors, not 1 */
int DOS_extended = 0;   /* 1: use starting cylinder boundary of extd partn */
int dump = 0;           /* 1: list in a format suitable for later input */
int verify = 0;         /* 1: check that listed partition is reasonable */
int no_write = 0; /* 1: do not actually write to disk */
int no_reread = 0;      /* 1: skip the BLKRRPART ioctl test at startup */
int leave_last = 0;     /* 1: don't allocate the last cylinder */
int opt_list = 0;
char *save_sector_file = NULL;
char *restore_sector_file = NULL;

static void
do_warn(char *s, ...) {
    va_list p;

    va_start(p, s);
    fflush(stdout);
    vfprintf(stderr, s, p);
    fflush(stderr);
    va_end(p);
}

static void
warn(char *s, ...) {
    va_list p;

    va_start(p, s);
    if (!quiet) {
      fflush(stdout);
      vfprintf(stderr, s, p);
      fflush(stderr);
    }
    va_end(p);
}

static void
error(char *s, ...) {
    va_list p;

    va_start(p, s);
    fflush(stdout);
    fprintf(stderr, "\n" PROGNAME ": ");
    vfprintf(stderr, s, p);
    fflush(stderr);
    va_end(p);
}

static void
fatal(char *s, ...) {
    va_list p;

    va_start(p, s);
    fflush(stdout);
    fprintf(stderr, "\n" PROGNAME ": ");
    vfprintf(stderr, s, p);
    fflush(stderr);
    va_end(p);
    exit(1);
}

/*
 * GCC nonsense - needed for GCC 3.4.x with -O2
 *
 * Maybe just test with #if (__GNUC__ >= 3) && (__GNUC_MINOR__ >= 4) ?
 */
#ifndef __GNUC_PREREQ
#define __GNUC_PREREQ(x,y)    0
#endif
#if __GNUC_PREREQ(3,4)
#define __attribute__used __attribute__ ((used))
#else
#define __attribute__used
#endif

/*
 * arm needs PACKED - use it everywhere?
 */
#if defined(__GNUC__) && (defined(__arm__) || defined(__alpha__))
# define PACKED __attribute__ ((packed))
#else
# define PACKED
#endif


/*
 *  A. About seeking
 */

/*
 * sseek: seek to specified sector - return 0 on failure
 *
 * For >4GB disks lseek needs a > 32bit arg, and we have to use llseek.
 * On the other hand, a 32 bit sector number is OK until 2TB.
 * The routines _llseek and sseek below are the only ones that
 * know about the loff_t type.
 *
 * Note: we use 512-byte sectors here, irrespective of the hardware ss.
 */
#undef use_lseek
#if defined (__alpha__) || defined (__ia64__) || defined (__x86_64__) || defined (__s390x__)
#define use_lseek
#endif

#ifndef use_lseek
static __attribute__used
_syscall5(int,  _llseek,  unsigned int,  fd, ulong, hi, ulong, lo,
       loff_t *, res, unsigned int, wh);
#endif

static int
sseek(char *dev, unsigned int fd, unsigned long s) {
    loff_t in, out;
    in = ((loff_t) s << 9);
    out = 1;

#ifndef use_lseek
    if (_llseek (fd, in>>32, in & 0xffffffff, &out, SEEK_SET) != 0) {
#else
    if ((out = lseek(fd, in, SEEK_SET)) != in) {
#endif
      perror("llseek");
      error(_("seek error on %s - cannot seek to %lu\n"), dev, s);
      return 0;
    }

    if (in != out) {
      error(_("seek error: wanted 0x%08x%08x, got 0x%08x%08x\n"),
             (unsigned int)(in>>32), (unsigned int)(in & 0xffffffff),
             (unsigned int)(out>>32), (unsigned int)(out & 0xffffffff));
      return 0;
    }
    return 1;
}

/*
 *  B. About sectors
 */

/*
 * We preserve all sectors read in a chain - some of these will
 * have to be modified and written back.
 */
struct sector {
    struct sector *next;
    unsigned long sectornumber;
    int to_be_written;
    char data[512];
} *sectorhead;

static void
free_sectors(void) {
    struct sector *s;

    while (sectorhead) {
      s = sectorhead;
      sectorhead = s->next;
      free(s);
    }
}

static struct sector *
get_sector(char *dev, int fd, unsigned long sno) {
    struct sector *s;

    for(s = sectorhead; s; s = s->next)
      if (s->sectornumber == sno)
          return s;

    if (!sseek(dev, fd, sno))
      return 0;

    if (!(s = (struct sector *) malloc(sizeof(struct sector))))
      fatal(_("out of memory - giving up\n"));

    if (read(fd, s->data, sizeof(s->data)) != sizeof(s->data)) {
      if (errno)        /* 0 in case we read past end-of-disk */
          perror("read");
      error(_("read error on %s - cannot read sector %lu\n"), dev, sno);
      free(s);
      return 0;
    }

    s->next = sectorhead;
    sectorhead = s;
    s->sectornumber = sno;
    s->to_be_written = 0;

    return s;
}

static int
msdos_signature (struct sector *s) {
    unsigned char *data = s->data;
    if (data[510] == 0x55 && data[511] == 0xaa)
          return 1;
    error(_("ERROR: sector %lu does not have an msdos signature\n"),
        s->sectornumber);
    return 0;
}

static int
write_sectors(char *dev, int fd) {
    struct sector *s;

    for (s = sectorhead; s; s = s->next)
      if (s->to_be_written) {
          if (!sseek(dev, fd, s->sectornumber))
            return 0;
          if (write(fd, s->data, sizeof(s->data)) != sizeof(s->data)) {
            perror("write");
            error(_("write error on %s - cannot write sector %lu\n"),
                   dev, s->sectornumber);
            return 0;
          }
          s->to_be_written = 0;
      }
    return 1;
}

static void
ulong_to_chars(unsigned long u, char *uu) {
    int i;

    for(i=0; i<4; i++) {
      uu[i] = (u & 0xff);
      u >>= 8;
    }
}

static unsigned long
chars_to_ulong(unsigned char *uu) {
    int i;
    unsigned long u = 0;

    for(i=3; i>=0; i--)
      u = (u << 8) | uu[i];
    return u;
}

static int
save_sectors(char *dev, int fdin) {
    struct sector *s;
    char ss[516];
    int fdout;

    fdout = open(save_sector_file, O_WRONLY | O_CREAT, 0444);
    if (fdout < 0) {
      perror(save_sector_file);
      error(_("cannot open partition sector save file (%s)\n"),
             save_sector_file);
      return 0;
    }

    for (s = sectorhead; s; s = s->next)
      if (s->to_be_written) {
          ulong_to_chars(s->sectornumber, ss);
          if (!sseek(dev, fdin, s->sectornumber))
            return 0;
          if (read(fdin, ss+4, 512) != 512) {
            perror("read");
            error(_("read error on %s - cannot read sector %lu\n"),
                   dev, s->sectornumber);
            return 0;
          }
          if (write(fdout, ss, sizeof(ss)) != sizeof(ss)) {
            perror("write");
            error(_("write error on %s\n"), save_sector_file);
            return 0;
          }
      }
    return 1;
}

static void reread_disk_partition(char *dev, int fd);

static int
restore_sectors(char *dev) {
    int fdin, fdout, ct;
    struct stat statbuf;
    char *ss0, *ss;
    unsigned long sno;

    if (stat(restore_sector_file, &statbuf) < 0) {
      perror(restore_sector_file);
      error(_("cannot stat partition restore file (%s)\n"),
             restore_sector_file);
      return 0;
    }
    if (statbuf.st_size % 516) {
      error(_("partition restore file has wrong size - not restoring\n"));
      return 0;
    }
    if (!(ss = (char *) malloc(statbuf.st_size))) {
      error(_("out of memory?\n"));
      return 0;
    }
    fdin = open(restore_sector_file, O_RDONLY);
    if (fdin < 0) {
      perror(restore_sector_file);
      error(_("cannot open partition restore file (%s)\n"),
             restore_sector_file);
      return 0;
    }
    if (read(fdin, ss, statbuf.st_size) != statbuf.st_size) {
      perror("read");
      error(_("error reading %s\n"), restore_sector_file);
      return 0;
    }

    fdout = open(dev, O_WRONLY);
    if (fdout < 0) {
      perror(dev);
      error(_("cannot open device %s for writing\n"), dev);
      return 0;
    }

    ss0 = ss;
    ct = statbuf.st_size/516;
    while(ct--) {
      sno = chars_to_ulong(ss);
      if (!sseek(dev, fdout, sno))
        return 0;
      if (write(fdout, ss+4, 512) != 512) {
          perror(dev);
          error(_("error writing sector %lu on %s\n"), sno, dev);
          return 0;
      }
      ss += 516;
    }
    free(ss0);

    reread_disk_partition(dev, fdout);

    return 1;
}

/*
 *  C. About heads, sectors and cylinders
 */

/*
 * <linux/hdreg.h> defines HDIO_GETGEO and
 * struct hd_geometry {
 *      unsigned char heads;
 *      unsigned char sectors;
 *      unsigned short cylinders;
 *      unsigned long start;
 * };
 *
 * For large disks g.cylinders is truncated, so we use BLKGETSIZE.
 */

/*
 * We consider several geometries for a disk:
 * B - the BIOS geometry, gotten from the kernel via HDIO_GETGEO
 * F - the fdisk geometry
 * U - the user-specified geometry
 *
 * 0 means unspecified / unknown
 */
struct geometry {
      unsigned long long total_size;            /* in sectors */
      unsigned long cylindersize;         /* in sectors */
      unsigned long heads, sectors, cylinders;
      unsigned long start;
} B, F, U;

static struct geometry
get_geometry(char *dev, int fd, int silent) {
    struct hd_geometry g;
    unsigned long cyls;
    unsigned long long sectors;
    struct geometry R;

    if (ioctl(fd, HDIO_GETGEO, &g)) {
      g.heads = g.sectors = g.cylinders = g.start = 0;
      if (!silent)
          do_warn(_("Disk %s: cannot get geometry\n"), dev);
    }

    R.start = g.start;
    R.heads = g.heads;
    R.sectors = g.sectors;
    R.cylindersize = R.heads * R.sectors;
    R.cylinders = 0;
    R.total_size = 0;

    if (disksize(fd, &sectors)) {
      /* maybe an ordinary file */
      struct stat s;

      if (fstat(fd, &s) == 0 && S_ISREG(s.st_mode))
          R.total_size = (s.st_size >> 9);
      else if (!silent)
          do_warn(_("Disk %s: cannot get size\n"), dev);
    } else
          R.total_size = sectors;

    if (R.cylindersize && R.total_size) {
          sectors /= R.cylindersize;
          cyls = sectors;
          if (cyls != sectors)
                cyls = ~0;
          R.cylinders = cyls;
    }

    return R;
}

static void
get_cylindersize(char *dev, int fd, int silent) {
    struct geometry R;

    R = get_geometry(dev, fd, silent);

    B.heads = (U.heads ? U.heads : R.heads);
    B.sectors = (U.sectors ? U.sectors : R.sectors);
    B.cylinders = (U.cylinders ? U.cylinders : R.cylinders);

    B.cylindersize = B.heads * B.sectors;
    B.total_size = R.total_size;

    if (B.cylinders == 0 && B.cylindersize != 0)
          B.cylinders = B.total_size / B.cylindersize;

    if (R.start && !force) {
      warn(
          _("Warning: start=%lu - this looks like a partition rather than\n"
            "the entire disk. Using fdisk on it is probably meaningless.\n"
            "[Use the --force option if you really want this]\n"), R.start);
      exit(1);
    }
#if 0
    if (R.heads && B.heads != R.heads)
      warn(_("Warning: HDIO_GETGEO says that there are %lu heads\n"),
           R.heads);
    if (R.sectors && B.sectors != R.sectors)
      warn(_("Warning: HDIO_GETGEO says that there are %lu sectors\n"),
           R.sectors);
    if (R.cylinders && B.cylinders != R.cylinders
          && B.cylinders < 65536 && R.cylinders < 65536)
      warn(_("Warning: BLKGETSIZE/HDIO_GETGEO says that there are %lu cylinders\n"),
           R.cylinders);
#endif

    if (B.sectors > 63)
      warn(_("Warning: unlikely number of sectors (%lu) - usually at most 63\n"
         "This will give problems with all software that uses C/H/S addressing.\n"),
         B.sectors);
    if (!silent)
      printf(_("\nDisk %s: %lu cylinders, %lu heads, %lu sectors/track\n"),
           dev, B.cylinders, B.heads, B.sectors);
}

typedef struct { unsigned char h,s,c; } PACKED chs; /* has some c bits in s */
chs zero_chs = { 0,0,0 };

typedef struct { unsigned long h,s,c; } longchs;
longchs zero_longchs;

static chs
longchs_to_chs (longchs aa, struct geometry G) {
    chs a;

    if (aa.h < 256 && aa.s < 64 && aa.c < 1024) {
      a.h = aa.h;
      a.s = aa.s | ((aa.c >> 2) & 0xc0);
      a.c = (aa.c & 0xff);
    } else if (G.heads && G.sectors) {
      a.h = G.heads - 1;
      a.s = G.sectors | 0xc0;
      a.c = 0xff;
    } else
        a = zero_chs;
    return a;
}

static longchs
chs_to_longchs (chs a) {
    longchs aa;

    aa.h = a.h;
    aa.s = (a.s & 0x3f);
    aa.c = (a.s & 0xc0);
    aa.c = (aa.c << 2) + a.c;
    return aa;
}

static longchs
ulong_to_longchs (unsigned long sno, struct geometry G) {
    longchs aa;

    if (G.heads && G.sectors && G.cylindersize) {
      aa.s = 1 + sno % G.sectors;
      aa.h = (sno / G.sectors) % G.heads;
      aa.c = sno / G.cylindersize;
      return aa;
    } else {
      return zero_longchs;
    }
}

static chs
ulong_to_chs (unsigned long sno, struct geometry G) {
    return longchs_to_chs(ulong_to_longchs(sno, G), G);
}

#if 0
static unsigned long
longchs_to_ulong (longchs aa, struct geometry G) {
    return (aa.c*G.cylindersize + aa.h*G.sectors + aa.s - 1);
}

static unsigned long
chs_to_ulong (chs a, struct geometry G) {
    return longchs_to_ulong(chs_to_longchs(a), G);
}
#endif

static int
is_equal_chs (chs a, chs b) {
    return (a.h == b.h && a.s == b.s && a.c == b.c);
}

static int
chs_ok (chs a, char *v, char *w) {
    longchs aa = chs_to_longchs(a);
    int ret = 1;

    if (is_equal_chs(a, zero_chs))
      return 1;
    if (B.heads && aa.h >= B.heads) {
      warn(_("%s of partition %s has impossible value for head: "
           "%lu (should be in 0-%lu)\n"), w, v, aa.h, B.heads-1);
      ret = 0;
    }
    if (B.sectors && (aa.s == 0 || aa.s > B.sectors)) {
      warn(_("%s of partition %s has impossible value for sector: "
           "%lu (should be in 1-%lu)\n"), w, v, aa.s, B.sectors);
      ret = 0;
    }
    if (B.cylinders && aa.c >= B.cylinders) {
      warn(_("%s of partition %s has impossible value for cylinders: "
           "%lu (should be in 0-%lu)\n"), w, v, aa.c, B.cylinders-1);
      ret = 0;
    }
    return ret;
}

/*
 *  D. About system Ids
 */

#define EMPTY_PARTITION       0
#define EXTENDED_PARTITION    5
#define WIN98_EXTENDED        0x0f
#define DM6_AUX1PARTITION     0x51
#define DM6_AUX3PARTITION     0x53
#define DM6_PARTITION         0x54
#define EZD_PARTITION         0x55
#define LINUX_SWAP              0x82
#define LINUX_NATIVE            0x83
#define LINUX_EXTENDED        0x85
#define BSD_PARTITION         0xa5
#define NETBSD_PARTITION      0xa9

/* List of partition types now in i386_sys_types.c */

static const char *
sysname(unsigned char type) {
    struct systypes *s;

    for (s = i386_sys_types; s->name; s++)
      if (s->type == type)
      return _(s->name);
    return _("Unknown");
}

static void
list_types(void) {
    struct systypes *s;

    printf(_("Id  Name\n\n"));
    for (s = i386_sys_types; s->name; s++)
      printf("%2x  %s\n", s->type, _(s->name));
}

static int
is_extended(unsigned char type) {
      return (type == EXTENDED_PARTITION
            || type == LINUX_EXTENDED
            || type == WIN98_EXTENDED);
}

static int
is_bsd(unsigned char type) {
      return (type == BSD_PARTITION || type == NETBSD_PARTITION);
}

/*
 *  E. About partitions
 */

/* MS/DOS partition */

struct partition {
    unsigned char bootable;         /* 0 or 0x80 */
    chs begin_chs;
    unsigned char sys_type;
    chs end_chs;
    unsigned int start_sect;  /* starting sector counting from 0 */
    unsigned int nr_sects;    /* nr of sectors in partition */
} PACKED;

/* Unfortunately, partitions are not aligned, and non-Intel machines
   are unhappy with non-aligned integers. So, we need a copy by hand. */
static int
copy_to_int(unsigned char *cp) {
    unsigned int m;

    m = *cp++;
    m += (*cp++ << 8);
    m += (*cp++ << 16);
    m += (*cp++ << 24);
    return m;
}

static void
copy_from_int(int m, char *cp) {
    *cp++ = (m & 0xff); m >>= 8;
    *cp++ = (m & 0xff); m >>= 8;
    *cp++ = (m & 0xff); m >>= 8;
    *cp++ = (m & 0xff);
}

static void
copy_to_part(char *cp, struct partition *p) {
    p->bootable = *cp++;
    p->begin_chs.h = *cp++;
    p->begin_chs.s = *cp++;
    p->begin_chs.c = *cp++;
    p->sys_type = *cp++;
    p->end_chs.h = *cp++;
    p->end_chs.s = *cp++;
    p->end_chs.c = *cp++;
    p->start_sect = copy_to_int(cp);
    p->nr_sects = copy_to_int(cp+4);
}

static void
copy_from_part(struct partition *p, char *cp) {
    *cp++ = p->bootable;
    *cp++ = p->begin_chs.h;
    *cp++ = p->begin_chs.s;
    *cp++ = p->begin_chs.c;
    *cp++ = p->sys_type;
    *cp++ = p->end_chs.h;
    *cp++ = p->end_chs.s;
    *cp++ = p->end_chs.c;
    copy_from_int(p->start_sect, cp);
    copy_from_int(p->nr_sects, cp+4);
}

/* Roughly speaking, Linux doesn't use any of the above fields except
   for partition type, start sector and number of sectors. (However,
   see also linux/drivers/scsi/fdomain.c.)
   The only way partition type is used (in the kernel) is the comparison
   for equality with EXTENDED_PARTITION (and these Disk Manager types). */

struct part_desc {
    unsigned long start;
    unsigned long size;
    unsigned long sector, offset; /* disk location of this info */
    struct partition p;
    struct part_desc *ep;       /* extended partition containing this one */
    int ptype;
#define DOS_TYPE  0
#define BSD_TYPE  1
} zero_part_desc;

static struct part_desc *
outer_extended_partition(struct part_desc *p) {
    while (p->ep)
      p = p->ep;
    return p;
}

static int
is_parent(struct part_desc *pp, struct part_desc *p) {
    while (p) {
      if (pp == p)
        return 1;
      p = p->ep;
    }
    return 0;
}

struct disk_desc {
    struct part_desc partitions[512];
    int partno;
} oldp, newp;

/* determine where on the disk this information goes */
static void
add_sector_and_offset(struct disk_desc *z) {
    int pno;
    struct part_desc *p;

    for (pno = 0; pno < z->partno; pno++) {
      p = &(z->partitions[pno]);
      p->offset = 0x1be + (pno%4)*sizeof(struct partition);
      p->sector = (p->ep ? p->ep->start : 0);
    }
}

/* tell the kernel to reread the partition tables */
static int
reread_ioctl(int fd) {
    if (ioctl(fd, BLKRRPART)) {
      perror("BLKRRPART");

      /* 2.6.8 returns EIO for a zero table */
      if (errno == EBUSY)
            return -1;
    }
    return 0;
}

static int
is_blockdev(int fd) {
    struct stat statbuf;

    return(fstat(fd, &statbuf) == 0 && S_ISBLK(statbuf.st_mode));
}

/* reread after writing */
static void
reread_disk_partition(char *dev, int fd) {
    printf(_("Re-reading the partition table ...\n"));
    fflush(stdout);
    sync();
    sleep(3);                 /* superfluous since 1.3.20 */

    if (reread_ioctl(fd) && is_blockdev(fd))
      do_warn(_("The command to re-read the partition table failed\n"
           "Reboot your system now, before using mkfs\n"));

    if (close(fd)) {
      perror(dev);
      do_warn(_("Error closing %s\n"), dev);
    }
    printf("\n");
}

/* find Linux name of this partition, assuming that it will have a name */
static int
index_to_linux(int pno, struct disk_desc *z) {
    int i, ct = 1;
    struct part_desc *p = &(z->partitions[0]);
    for (i=0; i<pno; i++,p++)
      if (i < 4 || (p->size > 0 && !is_extended(p->p.sys_type)))
        ct++;
    return ct;
}

static int
linux_to_index(int lpno, struct disk_desc *z) {
    int i, ct = 0;
    struct part_desc *p = &(z->partitions[0]);
    for (i=0; i<z->partno && ct < lpno; i++,p++)
      if ((i < 4 || (p->size > 0 && !is_extended(p->p.sys_type)))
       && ++ct == lpno)
      return i;
    return -1;
}

static int
asc_to_index(char *pnam, struct disk_desc *z) {
    int pnum, pno;

    if (*pnam == '#') {
      pno = atoi(pnam+1);
    } else {
      pnum = atoi(pnam);
      pno = linux_to_index(pnum, z);
    }
    if (!(pno >= 0 && pno < z->partno))
      fatal(_("%s: no such partition\n"), pnam);
    return pno;
}

/*
 * List partitions - in terms of sectors, blocks or cylinders
 */
#define F_SECTOR   1
#define F_BLOCK    2
#define F_CYLINDER 3
#define F_MEGABYTE 4

int default_format = F_MEGABYTE;
int specified_format = 0;
int show_extended = 0;
int one_only = 0;
int one_only_pno;
int increment = 0;

static void
set_format(char c) {
    switch(c) {
      default:
      do_warn(_("unrecognized format - using sectors\n"));
      case 'S': specified_format = F_SECTOR; break;
      case 'B': specified_format = F_BLOCK; break;
      case 'C': specified_format = F_CYLINDER; break;
      case 'M': specified_format = F_MEGABYTE; break;
    }
}

static unsigned long
unitsize(int format) {
    default_format = (B.cylindersize ? F_CYLINDER : F_MEGABYTE);
    if (!format && !(format = specified_format))
      format = default_format;

    switch(format) {
      default:
      case F_CYLINDER:
      if (B.cylindersize)
        return B.cylindersize;
      case F_SECTOR:
      return 1;
      case F_BLOCK:
      return 2;
      case F_MEGABYTE:
      return 2048;
    }
}

static unsigned long
get_disksize(int format) {
    unsigned long cs = B.cylinders;
    if (cs && leave_last)
      cs--;
    return (cs * B.cylindersize) / unitsize(format);
}

static void
out_partition_header(char *dev, int format, struct geometry G) {
    if (dump) {
      printf(_("# partition table of %s\n"), dev);
      printf("unit: sectors\n\n");
      return;
    }

    default_format = (G.cylindersize ? F_CYLINDER : F_MEGABYTE);
    if (!format && !(format = specified_format))
      format = default_format;

    switch(format) {
      default:
      do_warn(_("unimplemented format - using %s\n"),
             G.cylindersize ? _("cylinders") : _("sectors"));
      case F_CYLINDER:
      if (G.cylindersize) {
        printf(_("Units = cylinders of %lu bytes, blocks of 1024 bytes"
             ", counting from %d\n\n"),
             G.cylindersize<<9, increment);
          printf(_("   Device Boot Start     End   #cyls    #blocks   Id  System\n"));
          break;
      }
      /* fall through */
      case F_SECTOR:
      printf(_("Units = sectors of 512 bytes, counting from %d\n\n"),
             increment);
      printf(_("   Device Boot    Start       End   #sectors  Id  System\n"));
      break;
      case F_BLOCK:
      printf(_("Units = blocks of 1024 bytes, counting from %d\n\n"),
             increment);
      printf(_("   Device Boot   Start       End    #blocks   Id  System\n"));
      break;
      case F_MEGABYTE:
      printf(_("Units = mebibytes of 1048576 bytes, blocks of 1024 bytes"
             ", counting from %d\n\n"), increment);
      printf(_("   Device Boot Start   End    MiB    #blocks   Id  System\n"));
      break;
    }
}

static void
out_rounddown(int width, unsigned long n, unsigned long unit, int inc) {
    printf("%*lu", width, inc + n/unit);
    if (unit != 1)
      putchar((n % unit) ? '+' : ' ');
    putchar(' ');
}

static void
out_roundup(int width, unsigned long n, unsigned long unit, int inc) {
    if (n == (unsigned long)(-1))
      printf("%*s", width, "-");
    else
      printf("%*lu", width, inc + n/unit);
    if (unit != 1)
      putchar(((n+1) % unit) ? '-' : ' ');
    putchar(' ');
}

static void
out_roundup_size(int width, unsigned long n, unsigned long unit) {
    printf("%*lu", width, (n+unit-1)/unit);
    if (unit != 1)
      putchar((n % unit) ? '-' : ' ');
    putchar(' ');
}

static struct geometry
get_fdisk_geometry_one(struct part_desc *p) {
    struct geometry G;

    chs b = p->p.end_chs;
    longchs bb = chs_to_longchs(b);
    G.heads = bb.h+1;
    G.sectors = bb.s;
    G.cylindersize = G.heads*G.sectors;
    G.cylinders = G.start = 0;
    return G;
}

static int
get_fdisk_geometry(struct disk_desc *z) {
    struct part_desc *p;
    int pno, agree;
    struct geometry G0, G;

    agree = 0;
    G0.heads = G0.sectors = 0;
    for (pno=0; pno < z->partno; pno++) {
      p = &(z->partitions[pno]);
      if (p->size != 0 && p->p.sys_type != 0) {
          G = get_fdisk_geometry_one(p);
          if (!G0.heads) {
            G0 = G;
            agree = 1;
          } else if (G.heads != G0.heads || G.sectors != G0.sectors) {
            agree = 0;
            break;
          }
      }
    }
    F = (agree ? G0 : B);
    return (F.sectors != B.sectors || F.heads != B.heads);
}

static void
out_partition(char *dev, int format, struct part_desc *p,
            struct disk_desc *z, struct geometry G) {
    unsigned long start, end, size;
    int pno, lpno;

    if (!format && !(format = specified_format))
      format = default_format;

    pno = p - &(z->partitions[0]);  /* our index */
    lpno = index_to_linux(pno, z);  /* name of next one that has a name */
    if (pno == linux_to_index(lpno, z))  /* was that us? */
      printf("%s", partname(dev, lpno, 10));  /* yes */
    else if (show_extended)
      printf("    -     ");
    else
      return;
    putchar(dump ? ':' : ' ');

    start = p->start;
    end = p->start + p->size - 1;
    size = p->size;

    if (dump) {
      printf(" start=%9lu", start);
      printf(", size=%9lu", size);
      if (p->ptype == DOS_TYPE) {
          printf(", Id=%2x", p->p.sys_type);
          if (p->p.bootable == 0x80)
            printf(", bootable");
      }
      printf("\n");
      return;
    }

    if (p->ptype != DOS_TYPE || p->p.bootable == 0)
      printf("   ");
    else if (p->p.bootable == 0x80)
      printf(" * ");
    else
      printf(" ? ");          /* garbage */

    switch(format) {
      case F_CYLINDER:
      if (G.cylindersize) {
          out_rounddown(6, start, G.cylindersize, increment);
          out_roundup(6, end, G.cylindersize, increment);
          out_roundup_size(6, size, G.cylindersize);
          out_rounddown(9, size, 2, 0);
          break;
      }
      /* fall through */
      default:
      case F_SECTOR:
      out_rounddown(9, start, 1, increment);
      out_roundup(9, end, 1, increment);
      out_rounddown(10, size, 1, 0);
      break;
      case F_BLOCK:
#if 0
      printf("%8lu,%3lu ",
             p->sector/2, ((p->sector & 1) ? 512 : 0) + p->offset);
#endif
      out_rounddown(8, start, 2, increment);
      out_roundup(8, end, 2, increment);
      out_rounddown(9, size, 2, 0);
      break;
      case F_MEGABYTE:
      out_rounddown(5, start, 2048, increment);
      out_roundup(5, end, 2048, increment);
      out_roundup_size(5, size, 2048);
      out_rounddown(9, size, 2, 0);
      break;
    }
    if (p->ptype == DOS_TYPE) {
      printf(" %2x  %s\n",
         p->p.sys_type, sysname(p->p.sys_type));
    } else {
      printf("\n");
    }

    /* Is chs as we expect? */
    if (!quiet && p->ptype == DOS_TYPE) {
      chs a, b;
      longchs aa, bb;
      a = (size ? ulong_to_chs(start,G) : zero_chs);
      b = p->p.begin_chs;
      aa = chs_to_longchs(a);
      bb = chs_to_longchs(b);
      if (a.s && !is_equal_chs(a, b))
        do_warn(_("\t\tstart: (c,h,s) expected (%ld,%ld,%ld) found (%ld,%ld,%ld)\n"),
             aa.c, aa.h, aa.s, bb.c, bb.h, bb.s);
      a = (size ? ulong_to_chs(end,G) : zero_chs);
      b = p->p.end_chs;
      aa = chs_to_longchs(a);
      bb = chs_to_longchs(b);
      if (a.s && !is_equal_chs(a, b))
        do_warn(_("\t\tend: (c,h,s) expected (%ld,%ld,%ld) found (%ld,%ld,%ld)\n"),
             aa.c, aa.h, aa.s, bb.c, bb.h, bb.s);
      if (G.cylinders && G.cylinders < 1024 && bb.c > G.cylinders)
        do_warn(_("partition ends on cylinder %ld, beyond the end of the disk\n"),
             bb.c);
    }
}

static void
out_partitions(char *dev, struct disk_desc *z) {
    int pno, format = 0;

    if (z->partno == 0)
      do_warn(_("No partitions found\n"));
    else {
      if (get_fdisk_geometry(z) && !dump) {
          do_warn(
         _("Warning: The partition table looks like it was made\n"
           "  for C/H/S=*/%ld/%ld (instead of %ld/%ld/%ld).\n"
           "For this listing I'll assume that geometry.\n"),
         F.heads, F.sectors, B.cylinders, B.heads, B.sectors);
      }

      out_partition_header(dev, format, F);
      for(pno=0; pno < z->partno; pno++) {
          out_partition(dev, format, &(z->partitions[pno]), z, F);
          if (show_extended && pno%4==3)
            printf("\n");
      }
    }
}

static int
disj(struct part_desc *p, struct part_desc *q) {
    return
      ((p->start + p->size <= q->start)
      || (is_extended(p->p.sys_type)
          && q->start + q->size <= p->start + p->size));
}

static char *
pnumber(struct part_desc *p, struct disk_desc *z) {
    static char buf[20];
    int this, next;
    struct part_desc *p0 = &(z->partitions[0]);

    this = index_to_linux(p-p0, z);
    next = index_to_linux(p-p0+1, z);

    if (next > this)
      sprintf(buf, "%d", this);
    else
      sprintf(buf, "[%d]", this);
    return buf;
}

static int
partitions_ok(struct disk_desc *z) {
    struct part_desc *partitions = &(z->partitions[0]), *p, *q;
    int partno = z->partno;

#define PNO(p) pnumber(p, z)

    /* Have at least 4 partitions been defined? */
    if (partno < 4) {
       if (!partno)
            fatal(_("no partition table present.\n"));
       else
            fatal(_("strange, only %d partitions defined.\n"), partno);
       return 0;
    }

    /* Are the partitions of size 0 marked empty?
       And do they have start = 0? And bootable = 0? */
    for (p = partitions; p - partitions < partno; p++)
      if (p->size == 0) {
        if (p->p.sys_type != EMPTY_PARTITION)
          warn(_("Warning: partition %s has size 0 but is not marked Empty\n"),
             PNO(p));
        else if (p->p.bootable != 0)
          warn(_("Warning: partition %s has size 0 and is bootable\n"),
             PNO(p));
        else if (p->p.start_sect != 0)
          warn(_("Warning: partition %s has size 0 and nonzero start\n"),
             PNO(p));
        /* all this is probably harmless, no error return */
      }

    /* Are the logical partitions contained in their extended partitions? */
    for (p = partitions+4; p < partitions+partno; p++)
      if (p->ptype == DOS_TYPE)
      if (p->size && !is_extended(p->p.sys_type)) {
        q = p->ep;
        if (p->start < q->start || p->start + p->size > q->start + q->size) {
            warn(_("Warning: partition %s "), PNO(p));
            warn(_("is not contained in partition %s\n"), PNO(q));
            return 0;
        }
      }

    /* Are the data partitions mutually disjoint? */
    for (p = partitions; p < partitions+partno; p++)
      if (p->size && !is_extended(p->p.sys_type))
      for (q = p+1; q < partitions+partno; q++)
        if (q->size && !is_extended(q->p.sys_type))
          if (!((p->start > q-> start) ? disj(q,p) : disj(p,q))) {
            warn(_("Warning: partitions %s "), PNO(p));
            warn(_("and %s overlap\n"), PNO(q));
            return 0;
          }

    /* Are the data partitions and the extended partition
       table sectors disjoint? */
    for (p = partitions; p < partitions+partno; p++)
      if (p->size && !is_extended(p->p.sys_type))
      for (q = partitions; q < partitions+partno; q++)
        if (is_extended(q->p.sys_type))
          if (p->start <= q->start && p->start + p->size > q->start) {
            warn(_("Warning: partition %s contains part of "
                   "the partition table (sector %lu),\n"
                   "and will destroy it when filled\n"),
                 PNO(p), q->start);
            return 0;
          }

    /* Do they start past zero and end before end-of-disk? */
    { unsigned long ds = get_disksize(F_SECTOR);
    for (p = partitions; p < partitions+partno; p++)
      if (p->size) {
        if (p->start == 0) {
            warn(_("Warning: partition %s starts at sector 0\n"), PNO(p));
            return 0;
        }
        if (p->size && p->start + p->size > ds) {
            warn(_("Warning: partition %s extends past end of disk\n"),
               PNO(p));
            return 0;
        }
      }
    }

    /* At most one chain of DOS extended partitions ? */
    /* It seems that the OS/2 fdisk has the additional requirement
       that the extended partition must be the fourth one */
    { int ect = 0;
      for (p = partitions; p < partitions+4; p++)
      if (p->p.sys_type == EXTENDED_PARTITION)
        ect++;
      if (ect > 1 && !Linux) {
        warn(_("Among the primary partitions, at most one can be extended\n"
             " (although this is not a problem under Linux)\n"));
        return 0;
      }
    }

    /*
     * Do all partitions start at a cylinder boundary ?
     * (this is not required for Linux)
     * The first partition starts after MBR.
     * Logical partitions start slightly after the containing extended partn.
     */
    if (B.cylindersize) {
      for(p = partitions; p < partitions+partno; p++)
        if (p->size) {
            if (p->start % B.cylindersize != 0
             && (!p->ep || p->start / B.cylindersize != p->ep->start / B.cylindersize)
             && (p->p.start_sect >= B.cylindersize)) {
              warn(_("Warning: partition %s does not start "
                   "at a cylinder boundary\n"), PNO(p));
              if (!Linux)
                return 0;
            }
            if ((p->start + p->size) % B.cylindersize) {
              warn(_("Warning: partition %s does not end "
                   "at a cylinder boundary\n"), PNO(p));
              if (!Linux)
                return 0;
            }
        }
    }

    /* Usually, one can boot only from primary partitions. */
    /* In fact, from a unique one only. */
    /* do not warn about bootable extended partitions -
       often LILO is there */
    { int pno = -1;
    for(p = partitions; p < partitions+partno; p++)
      if (p->p.bootable) {
        if (pno == -1)
          pno = p - partitions;
        else if (p - partitions < 4) {
            warn(_("Warning: more than one primary partition is marked "
               "bootable (active)\n"
               "This does not matter for LILO, but the DOS MBR will "
               "not boot this disk.\n"));
            break;
        }
        if (p - partitions >= 4) {
            warn(_("Warning: usually one can boot from primary partitions "
               "only\nLILO disregards the `bootable' flag.\n"));
            break;
        }
      }
      if (pno == -1 || pno >= 4)
      warn(_("Warning: no primary partition is marked bootable (active)\n"
           "This does not matter for LILO, but the DOS MBR will "
           "not boot this disk.\n"));
    }

    /* Is chs as we expect? */
    for(p = partitions; p < partitions+partno; p++)
      if (p->ptype == DOS_TYPE) {
      chs a, b;
      longchs aa, bb;
      a = p->size ? ulong_to_chs(p->start,B) : zero_chs;
      b = p->p.begin_chs;
      aa = chs_to_longchs(a);
      bb = chs_to_longchs(b);
      if (!chs_ok(b, PNO(p), _("start")))
        return 0;
      if (a.s && !is_equal_chs(a, b))
        warn(_("partition %s: start: (c,h,s) expected (%ld,%ld,%ld) found (%ld,%ld,%ld)\n"),
             PNO(p), aa.c, aa.h, aa.s, bb.c, bb.h, bb.s);
      a = p->size ? ulong_to_chs(p->start + p->size - 1, B) : zero_chs;
      b = p->p.end_chs;
      aa = chs_to_longchs(a);
      bb = chs_to_longchs(b);
      if (!chs_ok(b, PNO(p), _("end")))
        return 0;
      if (a.s && !is_equal_chs(a, b))
        warn(_("partition %s: end: (c,h,s) expected (%ld,%ld,%ld) found (%ld,%ld,%ld)\n"),
             PNO(p), aa.c, aa.h, aa.s, bb.c, bb.h, bb.s);
      if (B.cylinders && B.cylinders < 1024 && bb.c > B.cylinders)
        warn(_("partition %s ends on cylinder %ld, beyond the end of the disk\n"),
             PNO(p), bb.c);
    }

    return 1;

#undef PNO
}

static void
extended_partition(char *dev, int fd, struct part_desc *ep, struct disk_desc *z) {
    char *cp;
    struct sector *s;
    unsigned long start, here, next;
    int i, moretodo = 1;
    struct partition p;
    struct part_desc *partitions = &(z->partitions[0]);
    int pno = z->partno;

    here = start = ep->start;

    if (B.cylindersize && start % B.cylindersize) {
      /* This is BAD */
      if (DOS_extended) {
          here = start -= (start % B.cylindersize);
          do_warn(_("Warning: shifted start of the extd partition "
                 "from %ld to %ld\n"
                 "(For listing purposes only. "
                 "Do not change its contents.)\n"),
               ep->start, start);
      } else {
          do_warn(_("Warning: extended partition does not start at a "
                 "cylinder boundary.\n"
                 "DOS and Linux will interpret the contents differently.\n"));
      }
    }

    while (moretodo) {
      moretodo = 0;

      if (!(s = get_sector(dev, fd, here)))
          break;

      if (!msdos_signature(s))
          break;

      cp = s->data + 0x1be;

      if (pno+4 >= SIZE(z->partitions)) {
          do_warn(_("too many partitions - ignoring those past nr (%d)\n"),
               pno-1);
          break;
      }

      next = 0;

      for (i=0; i<4; i++,cp += sizeof(struct partition)) {
          partitions[pno].sector = here;
          partitions[pno].offset = cp - s->data;
          partitions[pno].ep = ep;
          copy_to_part(cp,&p);
          if (is_extended(p.sys_type)) {
            partitions[pno].start = start + p.start_sect;
            if (next)
              do_warn(_("tree of partitions?\n"));
            else
              next = partitions[pno].start;           /* follow `upper' branch */
            moretodo = 1;
          } else {
            partitions[pno].start = here + p.start_sect;
          }
          partitions[pno].size = p.nr_sects;
          partitions[pno].ptype = DOS_TYPE;
          partitions[pno].p = p;
          pno++;
      }
      here = next;
    }

    z->partno = pno;
}

#define BSD_DISKMAGIC   (0x82564557UL)
#define BSD_MAXPARTITIONS       16
#define BSD_FS_UNUSED      0
typedef unsigned char u8;
typedef unsigned short u16;
typedef unsigned int u32;
struct bsd_disklabel {
      u32   d_magic;
      char  d_junk1[4];
      char    d_typename[16];
      char    d_packname[16];
      char  d_junk2[92];
      u32   d_magic2;
      char  d_junk3[2];
      u16   d_npartitions;          /* number of partitions in following */
      char  d_junk4[8];
     struct  bsd_partition {         /* the partition table */
                u32   p_size;         /* number of sectors in partition */
                u32   p_offset;       /* starting sector */
                u32   p_fsize;        /* filesystem basic fragment size */
                u8    p_fstype;       /* filesystem type, see below */
                u8    p_frag;         /* filesystem fragments per block */
                u16   p_cpg;          /* filesystem cylinders per group */
     } d_partitions[BSD_MAXPARTITIONS];      /* actually may be more */
};

static void
bsd_partition(char *dev, int fd, struct part_desc *ep, struct disk_desc *z) {
      struct bsd_disklabel *l;
      struct bsd_partition *bp, *bp0;
      unsigned long start = ep->start;
      struct sector *s;
      struct part_desc *partitions = &(z->partitions[0]);
      int pno = z->partno;

      if (!(s = get_sector(dev,fd,start+1)))
            return;
      l = (struct bsd_disklabel *) (s->data);
      if (l->d_magic != BSD_DISKMAGIC || l->d_magic2 != BSD_DISKMAGIC)
            return;

      bp = bp0 = &l->d_partitions[0];
      while (bp - bp0 < BSD_MAXPARTITIONS && bp - bp0 < l->d_npartitions) {
            if (pno+1 >= SIZE(z->partitions)) {
                  do_warn(_("too many partitions - ignoring those "
                         "past nr (%d)\n"), pno-1);
                  break;
            }
            if (bp->p_fstype != BSD_FS_UNUSED) {
                  partitions[pno].start = bp->p_offset;
                  partitions[pno].size = bp->p_size;
                  partitions[pno].sector = start+1;
                  partitions[pno].offset = (char *)bp - (char *)bp0;
                  partitions[pno].ep = 0;
                  partitions[pno].ptype = BSD_TYPE;
                  pno++;
            }
            bp++;
      }
      z->partno = pno;
}

#define MAKE_VERSION(p,q,r)     (65536*(p) + 256*(q) + (r))

static int
linux_version_code(void) {
        struct utsname my_utsname;
        int p, q, r;

        if (uname(&my_utsname) == 0) {
                p = atoi(strtok(my_utsname.release, "."));
                q = atoi(strtok(NULL, "."));
                r = atoi(strtok(NULL, "."));
                return MAKE_VERSION(p,q,r);
        }
        return 0;
}

static int
msdos_partition(char *dev, int fd, unsigned long start, struct disk_desc *z) {
    int i;
    char *cp;
    struct partition pt;
    struct sector *s;
    struct part_desc *partitions = &(z->partitions[0]);
    int pno = z->partno;
    int bsd_later = (linux_version_code() >= MAKE_VERSION(2,3,40));

    if (!(s = get_sector(dev, fd, start)))
      return 0;

    if (!msdos_signature(s))
      return 0;

    cp = s->data + 0x1be;
    copy_to_part(cp,&pt);

    /* If I am not mistaken, recent kernels will hide this from us,
         so we will never actually see traces of a Disk Manager */
    if (pt.sys_type == DM6_PARTITION
      || pt.sys_type == EZD_PARTITION
      || pt.sys_type == DM6_AUX1PARTITION
      || pt.sys_type == DM6_AUX3PARTITION) {
      do_warn(_("detected Disk Manager - unable to handle that\n"));
      return 0;
    }
    { unsigned int sig = *(unsigned short *)(s->data + 2);
      if (sig <= 0x1ae
        && *(unsigned short *)(s->data + sig) == 0x55aa
        && (1 & *(unsigned char *)(s->data + sig + 2))) {
        do_warn(_("DM6 signature found - giving up\n"));
        return 0;
      }
    }

    for (pno=0; pno<4; pno++,cp += sizeof(struct partition)) {
      partitions[pno].sector = start;
      partitions[pno].offset = cp - s->data;
      copy_to_part(cp,&pt);
      partitions[pno].start = start + pt.start_sect;
      partitions[pno].size = pt.nr_sects;
      partitions[pno].ep = 0;
      partitions[pno].p = pt;
    }

    z->partno = pno;

    for (i=0; i<4; i++) {
      if (is_extended(partitions[i].p.sys_type)) {
          if (!partitions[i].size) {
            do_warn(_("strange..., an extended partition of size 0?\n"));
            continue;
          }
          extended_partition(dev, fd, &partitions[i], z);
      }
      if (!bsd_later && is_bsd(partitions[i].p.sys_type)) {
          if (!partitions[i].size) {
            do_warn(_("strange..., a BSD partition of size 0?\n"));
            continue;
          }
          bsd_partition(dev, fd, &partitions[i], z);
      }
    }

    if (bsd_later) {
      for (i=0; i<4; i++) {
          if (is_bsd(partitions[i].p.sys_type)) {
            if (!partitions[i].size) {
                do_warn(_("strange..., a BSD partition of size 0?\n"));
                continue;
            }
            bsd_partition(dev, fd, &partitions[i], z);
          }
      }
    }
          
    return 1;
}

static int
osf_partition(char *dev, int fd, unsigned long start, struct disk_desc *z) {
      return 0;
}

static int
sun_partition(char *dev, int fd, unsigned long start, struct disk_desc *z) {
      return 0;
}

static int
amiga_partition(char *dev, int fd, unsigned long start, struct disk_desc *z) {
      return 0;
}

static void
get_partitions(char *dev, int fd, struct disk_desc *z) {
    z->partno = 0;

    if (!msdos_partition(dev, fd, 0, z)
      && !osf_partition(dev, fd, 0, z)
      && !sun_partition(dev, fd, 0, z)
      && !amiga_partition(dev, fd, 0, z)) {
      do_warn(_(" %s: unrecognized partition table type\n"), dev);
      return;
    }
}

static int
write_partitions(char *dev, int fd, struct disk_desc *z) {
    struct sector *s;
    struct part_desc *partitions = &(z->partitions[0]), *p;
    int pno = z->partno;

    if (no_write) {
      do_warn(_("-n flag was given: Nothing changed\n"));
      exit(0);
    }

    for (p = partitions; p < partitions+pno; p++) {
      s = get_sector(dev, fd, p->sector);
      if (!s) return 0;
      s->to_be_written = 1;
      if (p->ptype == DOS_TYPE) {
          copy_from_part(&(p->p), s->data + p->offset);
          s->data[510] = 0x55;
          s->data[511] = 0xaa;
      }
    }
    if (save_sector_file) {
      if (!save_sectors(dev, fd)) {
          fatal(_("Failed saving the old sectors - aborting\n"));
          return 0;
      }
    }
    if (!write_sectors(dev, fd)) {
      error(_("Failed writing the partition on %s\n"), dev);
      return 0;
    }
    return 1;
}

/*
 *  F. The standard input
 */

/*
 * Input format:
 * <start> <size> <type> <bootable> <c,h,s> <c,h,s>
 * Fields are separated by whitespace or comma or semicolon possibly
 * followed by whitespace; initial and trailing whitespace is ignored.
 * Numbers can be octal, decimal or hexadecimal, decimal is default
 * The <c,h,s> parts can (and probably should) be omitted.
 * Bootable is specified as [*|-], with as default not-bootable.
 * Type is given in hex, without the 0x prefix, or is [E|S|L|X], where
 * L (LINUX_NATIVE (83)) is the default, S is LINUX_SWAP (82), and E
 * is EXTENDED_PARTITION (5), X is LINUX_EXTENDED (85).
 * The default value of start is the first nonassigned sector/cylinder/...
 * The default value of size is as much as possible (until next
 * partition or end-of-disk).
 * .: end of chain of extended partitions.
 *
 * On interactive input an empty line means: all defaults.
 * Otherwise empty lines are ignored.
 */

int eof, eob;

struct dumpfld {
    int fldno;
    char *fldname;
    int is_bool;
} dumpflds[] = {
    { 0, "start", 0 },
    { 1, "size", 0 },
    { 2, "Id", 0 },
    { 3, "bootable", 1 },
    { 4, "bh", 0 },
    { 5, "bs", 0 },
    { 6, "bc", 0 },
    { 7, "eh", 0 },
    { 8, "es", 0 },
    { 9, "ec", 0 }
};

/*
 * Read a line, split it into fields
 *
 * (some primitive handwork, but a more elaborate parser seems
 *  unnecessary)
 */
#define RD_EOF (-1)
#define RD_CMD (-2)

static int
read_stdin(unsigned char **fields, unsigned char *line, int fieldssize, int linesize) {
    unsigned char *lp, *ip;
    int c, fno;

    /* boolean true and empty string at start */
    line[0] = '*';
    line[1] = 0;
    for (fno=0; fno < fieldssize; fno++)
      fields[fno] = line + 1;
    fno = 0;

    /* read a line from stdin */
    lp = fgets(line+2, linesize, stdin);
    if (lp == NULL) {
      eof = 1;
      return RD_EOF;
    }
    if (!(lp = index(lp, '\n')))
      fatal(_("long or incomplete input line - quitting\n"));
    *lp = 0;

    /* remove comments, if any */
    if ((lp = index(line+2, '#')) != 0)
      *lp = 0;

    /* recognize a few commands - to be expanded */
    if (!strcmp(line+2, "unit: sectors")) {
      specified_format = F_SECTOR;
      return RD_CMD;
    }

    /* dump style? - then bad input is fatal */
    if ((ip = index(line+2, ':')) != 0) {
      struct dumpfld *d;

      nxtfld:
          ip++;
          while(isspace(*ip))
            ip++;
          if (*ip == 0)
            return fno;
          for(d = dumpflds; d-dumpflds < SIZE(dumpflds); d++) {
            if (!strncmp(ip, d->fldname, strlen(d->fldname))) {
                ip += strlen(d->fldname);
                while(isspace(*ip))
                  ip++;
                if (d->is_bool)
                  fields[d->fldno] = line;
                else if (*ip == '=') {
                  while(isspace(*++ip)) ;
                  fields[d->fldno] = ip;
                  while(isalnum(*ip))     /* 0x07FF */
                    ip++;
                } else
                  fatal(_("input error: `=' expected after %s field\n"),
                      d->fldname);
                if (fno <= d->fldno)
                  fno = d->fldno + 1;
                if (*ip == 0)
                  return fno;
                if (*ip != ',' && *ip != ';')
                  fatal(_("input error: unexpected character %c after %s field\n"),
                      *ip, d->fldname);
                *ip = 0;
                goto nxtfld;
            }
          }
          fatal(_("unrecognized input: %s\n"), ip);
    }

    /* split line into fields */
    lp = ip = line+2;
    fields[fno++] = lp;
    while((c = *ip++) != 0) {
      if (!lp[-1] && (c == '\t' || c == ' '))
        ;
      else if (c == '\t' || c == ' ' || c == ',' || c == ';') {
          *lp++ = 0;
          if (fno < fieldssize)
            fields[fno++] = lp;
          continue;
      } else
        *lp++ = c;
    }

    if (lp == fields[fno-1])
      fno--;
    return fno;
}

/* read a number, use default if absent */
/* a sign gives an offset from the default */
static int
get_ul(char *u, unsigned long *up, unsigned long def, int base) {
    char *nu;
    int sign = 0;
    unsigned long val;

    if (*u == '+') {
      sign = 1;
      u++;
    } else if (*u == '-') {
      sign = -1;
      u++;
    }
    if (*u) {
      errno = 0;
      val = strtoul(u, &nu, base);
      if (errno == ERANGE) {
          do_warn(_("number too big\n"));
          return -1;
      }
      if (*nu) {
          do_warn(_("trailing junk after number\n"));
          return -1;
      }
      if (sign == 1)
            val = def + val;
      else if (sign == -1)
            val = def - val;
      *up = val;
    } else
      *up = def;
    return 0;
}

/* There are two common ways to structure extended partitions:
   as nested boxes, and as a chain. Sometimes the partitions
   must be given in order. Sometimes all logical partitions
   must lie inside the outermost extended partition.
NESTED: every partition is contained in the surrounding partitions
   and is disjoint from all others.
CHAINED: every data partition is contained in the surrounding partitions
   and disjoint from all others, but extended partitions may lie outside
   (insofar as allowed by all_logicals_inside_outermost_extended).
ONESECTOR: all data partitions are mutually disjoint; extended partitions
   each use one sector only (except perhaps for the outermost one).
*/
int partitions_in_order = 0;
int all_logicals_inside_outermost_extended = 1;
enum { NESTED, CHAINED, ONESECTOR } boxes = NESTED;

/* find the default value for <start> - assuming entire units */
static unsigned long
first_free(int pno, int is_extended, struct part_desc *ep, int format,
         unsigned long mid, struct disk_desc *z) {
    unsigned long ff, fff;
    unsigned long unit = unitsize(format);
    struct part_desc *partitions = &(z->partitions[0]), *pp = 0;

    /* if containing ep undefined, look at its container */
    if (ep && ep->p.sys_type == EMPTY_PARTITION)
      ep = ep->ep;

    if (ep) {
      if (boxes == NESTED || (boxes == CHAINED && !is_extended))
        pp = ep;
      else if (all_logicals_inside_outermost_extended)
        pp = outer_extended_partition(ep);
    }
#if 0
    ff = pp ? (pp->start + unit - 1) / unit : 0;
#else
    /* rounding up wastes almost an entire cylinder - round down
       and leave it to compute_start_sect() to fix the difference */
    ff = pp ? pp->start / unit : 0;
#endif
    /* MBR and 1st sector of an extended partition are never free */
    if (unit == 1)
      ff++;

  again:
    for(pp = partitions; pp < partitions+pno; pp++) {
      if (!is_parent(pp, ep) && pp->size > 0) {
          if ((partitions_in_order || pp->start / unit <= ff
                                 || (mid && pp->start / unit <= mid))
            && (fff = (pp->start + pp->size + unit - 1) / unit) > ff) {
            ff = fff;
            goto again;
          }
      }
    }

    return ff;
}

/* find the default value for <size> - assuming entire units */
static unsigned long
max_length(int pno, int is_extended, struct part_desc *ep, int format,
         unsigned long start, struct disk_desc *z) {
    unsigned long fu;
    unsigned long unit = unitsize(format);
    struct part_desc *partitions = &(z->partitions[0]), *pp = 0;

    /* if containing ep undefined, look at its container */
    if (ep && ep->p.sys_type == EMPTY_PARTITION)
      ep = ep->ep;

    if (ep) {
      if (boxes == NESTED || (boxes == CHAINED && !is_extended))
        pp = ep;
      else if (all_logicals_inside_outermost_extended)
        pp = outer_extended_partition(ep);
    }
    fu = pp ? (pp->start + pp->size) / unit : get_disksize(format);
      
    for(pp = partitions; pp < partitions+pno; pp++)
      if (!is_parent(pp, ep) && pp->size > 0
        && pp->start / unit >= start && pp->start / unit < fu)
      fu = pp->start / unit;

    return (fu > start) ? fu - start : 0;
}

/* compute starting sector of a partition inside an extended one */
/* return 0 on failure */
/* ep is 0 or points to surrounding extended partition */
static int
compute_start_sect(struct part_desc *p, struct part_desc *ep) {
    unsigned long base;
    int inc = (DOS && B.sectors) ? B.sectors : 1;
    int delta;

    if (ep && p->start + p->size >= ep->start + 1)
      delta = p->start - ep->start - inc;
    else if (p->start == 0 && p->size > 0)
      delta = -inc;
    else
      delta = 0;

    if (delta < 0) {
      p->start -= delta;
      p->size += delta;
      if (is_extended(p->p.sys_type) && boxes == ONESECTOR)
        p->size = inc;
      else if ((int)(p->size) <= 0) {
          warn(_("no room for partition descriptor\n"));
          return 0;
      }
    }
    base = (!ep ? 0
              : (is_extended(p->p.sys_type) ?
               outer_extended_partition(ep) : ep)->start);
    p->ep = ep;
    if (p->p.sys_type == EMPTY_PARTITION && p->size == 0) {
        p->p.start_sect = 0;
      p->p.begin_chs = zero_chs;
      p->p.end_chs = zero_chs;
    } else {
        p->p.start_sect = p->start - base;
      p->p.begin_chs = ulong_to_chs(p->start,B);
      p->p.end_chs = ulong_to_chs(p->start + p->size - 1,B);
    }
    p->p.nr_sects = p->size;
    return 1;
}    

/* build the extended partition surrounding a given logical partition */
static int
build_surrounding_extended(struct part_desc *p, struct part_desc *ep,
                     struct disk_desc *z) {
    int inc = (DOS && B.sectors) ? B.sectors : 1;
    int format = F_SECTOR;
    struct part_desc *p0 = &(z->partitions[0]), *eep = ep->ep;

    if (boxes == NESTED) {
      ep->start = first_free(ep-p0, 1, eep, format, p->start, z);
      ep->size = max_length(ep-p0, 1, eep, format, ep->start, z);
      if (ep->start > p->start || ep->start + ep->size < p->start + p->size) {
          warn(_("cannot build surrounding extended partition\n"));
          return 0;
      }
    } else {
      ep->start = p->start;
      if (boxes == CHAINED)
        ep->size = p->size;
      else
        ep->size = inc;
    }

    ep->p.nr_sects = ep->size;
    ep->p.bootable = 0;
    ep->p.sys_type = EXTENDED_PARTITION;
    if (!compute_start_sect(ep, eep) || !compute_start_sect(p, ep)) {
      ep->p.sys_type = EMPTY_PARTITION;
      ep->size = 0;
      return 0;
    }

    return 1;
}

static int
read_line(int pno, struct part_desc *ep, char *dev, int interactive,
        struct disk_desc *z) {
    unsigned char line[1000];
    unsigned char *fields[11];
    int fno, pct = pno%4;
    struct part_desc p, *orig;
    unsigned long ff, ff1, ul, ml, ml1, def;
    int format, lpno, is_extd;

    if (eof || eob)
      return -1;

    lpno = index_to_linux(pno, z);

    if (interactive) {
      if (pct == 0 && (show_extended || pno == 0))
        warn("\n");
      warn("%s:", partname(dev, lpno, 10));
    }

    /* read input line - skip blank lines when reading from a file */
    do {
      fno = read_stdin(fields, line, SIZE(fields), SIZE(line));
    } while(fno == RD_CMD || (fno == 0 && !interactive));
    if (fno == RD_EOF) {
      return -1;
    } else if (fno > 10 && *(fields[10]) != 0) {
      do_warn(_("too many input fields\n"));
      return 0;
    }

    if (fno == 1 && !strcmp(fields[0], ".")) {
      eob = 1;
      return -1;
    }

    /* use specified format, but round to cylinders if F_MEGABYTE specified */
    format = 0;
    if (B.cylindersize && specified_format == F_MEGABYTE)
      format = F_CYLINDER;

    orig = (one_only ? &(oldp.partitions[pno]) : 0);

    p = zero_part_desc;
    p.ep = ep;

    /* first read the type - we need to know whether it is extended */
    /* stop reading when input blank (defaults) and all is full */
    is_extd = 0;
    if (fno == 0) {           /* empty line */
      if (orig && is_extended(orig->p.sys_type))
        is_extd = 1;
      ff = first_free(pno, is_extd, ep, format, 0, z);
      ml = max_length(pno, is_extd, ep, format, ff, z);
      if (ml == 0 && is_extd == 0) {
          is_extd = 1;
          ff = first_free(pno, is_extd, ep, format, 0, z);
          ml = max_length(pno, is_extd, ep, format, ff, z);
      }
      if (ml == 0 && pno >= 4) {
          /* no free blocks left - don't read any further */
          warn(_("No room for more\n"));
          return -1;
      }
    }
    if (fno < 3 || !*(fields[2]))
      ul = orig ? orig->p.sys_type :
         (is_extd || (pno > 3 && pct == 1 && show_extended))
           ? EXTENDED_PARTITION : LINUX_NATIVE;
    else if (!strcmp(fields[2], "L"))
      ul = LINUX_NATIVE;
    else if (!strcmp(fields[2], "S"))
      ul = LINUX_SWAP;
    else if (!strcmp(fields[2], "E"))
      ul = EXTENDED_PARTITION;
    else if (!strcmp(fields[2], "X"))
      ul = LINUX_EXTENDED;
    else if (get_ul(fields[2], &ul, LINUX_NATIVE, 16))
      return 0;
    if (ul > 255) {
      warn(_("Illegal type\n"));
      return 0;
    }
    p.p.sys_type = ul;
    is_extd = is_extended(ul);

    /* find start */
    ff = first_free(pno, is_extd, ep, format, 0, z);
    ff1 = ff * unitsize(format);
    def = orig ? orig->start : (pno > 4 && pct > 1) ? 0 : ff1;
    if (fno < 1 || !*(fields[0]))
      p.start = def;
    else {
      if (get_ul(fields[0], &ul, def / unitsize(0), 0))
        return 0;
      p.start = ul * unitsize(0);
      p.start -= (p.start % unitsize(format));
    }

    /* find length */
    ml = max_length(pno, is_extd, ep, format, p.start / unitsize(format), z);
    ml1 = ml * unitsize(format);
    def = orig ? orig->size : (pno > 4 && pct > 1) ? 0 : ml1;
    if (fno < 2 || !*(fields[1]))
      p.size = def;
    else {
      if (get_ul(fields[1], &ul, def / unitsize(0), 0))
        return 0;
      p.size = ul * unitsize(0) + unitsize(format) - 1;
      p.size -= (p.size % unitsize(format));
    }
    if (p.size > ml1) {
      warn(_("Warning: given size (%lu) exceeds max allowable size (%lu)\n"),
           (p.size + unitsize(0) - 1) / unitsize(0), ml1 / unitsize(0));
      if (!force)
        return 0;
    }
    if (p.size == 0 && pno >= 4 && (fno < 2 || !*(fields[1]))) {
      warn(_("Warning: empty partition\n"));
      if (!force)
        return 0;
    }
    p.p.nr_sects = p.size;

    if (p.size == 0 && !orig) {
      if (fno < 1 || !*(fields[0]))
        p.start = 0;
      if (fno < 3 || !*(fields[2]))
        p.p.sys_type = EMPTY_PARTITION;
    }

    if (p.start < ff1 && p.size > 0) {
      warn(_("Warning: bad partition start (earliest %lu)\n"),
           (ff1 + unitsize(0) - 1) / unitsize(0));
      if (!force)
        return 0;
    }

    if (fno < 4 || !*(fields[3]))
      ul = (orig ? orig->p.bootable : 0);
    else if (!strcmp(fields[3], "-"))
      ul = 0;
    else if (!strcmp(fields[3], "*") || !strcmp(fields[3], "+"))
      ul = 0x80;
    else {
      warn(_("unrecognized bootable flag - choose - or *\n"));
      return 0;
    }
    p.p.bootable = ul;

    if (ep && ep->p.sys_type == EMPTY_PARTITION) {
      if (!build_surrounding_extended(&p, ep, z))
      return 0;
    } else
      if (!compute_start_sect(&p, ep))
      return 0;

    { longchs aa = chs_to_longchs(p.p.begin_chs), bb;

      if (fno < 5) {
        bb = aa;
      } else if (fno < 7) {
        warn(_("partial c,h,s specification?\n"));
        return 0;
      } else if (get_ul(fields[4], &bb.c, aa.c, 0) ||
            get_ul(fields[5], &bb.h, aa.h, 0) ||
            get_ul(fields[6], &bb.s, aa.s, 0))
      return 0;
      p.p.begin_chs = longchs_to_chs(bb,B);
    }
    { longchs aa = chs_to_longchs(p.p.end_chs), bb;

      if (fno < 8) {
        bb = aa;
      } else if (fno < 10) {
        warn(_("partial c,h,s specification?\n"));
        return 0;
      } else if (get_ul(fields[7], &bb.c, aa.c, 0) ||
            get_ul(fields[8], &bb.h, aa.h, 0) ||
            get_ul(fields[9], &bb.s, aa.s, 0))
      return 0;
      p.p.end_chs = longchs_to_chs(bb, B);
    }

    if (pno > 3 && p.size && show_extended && p.p.sys_type != EMPTY_PARTITION
              && (is_extended(p.p.sys_type) != (pct == 1))) {
      warn(_("Extended partition not where expected\n"));
      if (!force)
        return 0;
    }

    z->partitions[pno] = p;
    if (pno >= z->partno)
      z->partno += 4;         /* reqd for out_partition() */

    if (interactive)
      out_partition(dev, 0, &(z->partitions[pno]), z, B);

    return 1;
}

/* ep either points to the extended partition to contain this one,
   or to the empty partition that may become extended or is 0 */
static int
read_partition(char *dev, int interactive, int pno, struct part_desc *ep,
             struct disk_desc *z) {
    struct part_desc *p = &(z->partitions[pno]);
    int i;

    if (one_only) {
      *p = oldp.partitions[pno];
      if (one_only_pno != pno)
        goto ret;
    } else if (!show_extended && pno > 4 && pno%4)
        goto ret;

    while (!(i = read_line(pno, ep, dev, interactive, z)))
      if (!interactive)
      fatal(_("bad input\n"));
    if (i < 0) {
      p->ep = ep;
      return 0;
    }

  ret:
    p->ep = ep;
    if (pno >= z->partno)
      z->partno += 4;
    return 1;
}

static void
read_partition_chain(char *dev, int interactive, struct part_desc *ep,
                 struct disk_desc *z) {
    int i, base;

    eob = 0;
    while (1) {
      base = z->partno;
      if (base+4 > SIZE(z->partitions)) {
          do_warn(_("too many partitions\n"));
          break;
      }
      for (i=0; i<4; i++)
        if (!read_partition(dev, interactive, base+i, ep, z))
          return;
      for (i=0; i<4; i++) {
          ep = &(z->partitions[base+i]);
          if (is_extended(ep->p.sys_type) && ep->size)
            break;
      }
      if (i == 4) {
          /* nothing found - maybe an empty partition is going
             to be extended */
          if (one_only || show_extended)
            break;
          ep = &(z->partitions[base+1]);
          if (ep->size || ep->p.sys_type != EMPTY_PARTITION)
            break;
      }
    }
}

static void
read_input(char *dev, int interactive, struct disk_desc *z) {
    int i;
    struct part_desc *partitions = &(z->partitions[0]), *ep;

    for (i=0; i < SIZE(z->partitions); i++)
      partitions[i] = zero_part_desc;
    z->partno = 0;

    if (interactive)
      warn(_("Input in the following format; absent fields get a default value.\n"
             "<start> <size> <type [E,S,L,X,hex]> <bootable [-,*]> <c,h,s> <c,h,s>\n"
             "Usually you only need to specify <start> and <size> (and perhaps <type>).\n"));
    eof = 0;

    for (i=0; i<4; i++)
      read_partition(dev, interactive, i, 0, z);
    for (i=0; i<4; i++) {
      ep = partitions+i;
      if (is_extended(ep->p.sys_type) && ep->size)
        read_partition_chain(dev, interactive, ep, z);
    }
    add_sector_and_offset(z);
}

/*
 *  G. The command line
 */

static void version(void) {
    printf("%s %s %s (aeb@cwi.nl, %s) from util-linux-"
         UTIL_LINUX_VERSION "\n",
         PROGNAME, _("version"), VERSION, DATE);
}

static void
usage(void) {
    version();
    printf(_("Usage: %s [options] device ...\n"), PROGNAME);
    puts (_("device: something like /dev/hda or /dev/sda"));
    puts (_("useful options:"));
    puts (_("    -s [or --show-size]: list size of a partition"));
    puts (_("    -c [or --id]:        print or change partition Id"));
    puts (_("    -l [or --list]:      list partitions of each device"));
    puts (_("    -d [or --dump]:      idem, but in a format suitable for later input"));
    puts (_("    -i [or --increment]: number cylinders etc. from 1 instead of from 0"));
    puts (_("    -uS, -uB, -uC, -uM:  accept/report in units of sectors/blocks/cylinders/MB"));
    puts (_("    -T [or --list-types]:list the known partition types"));
    puts (_("    -D [or --DOS]:       for DOS-compatibility: waste a little space"));
    puts (_("    -R [or --re-read]:   make kernel reread partition table"));
    puts (_("    -N# :                change only the partition with number #"));
    puts (_("    -n :                 do not actually write to disk"));
    puts (_("    -O file :            save the sectors that will be overwritten to file"));
    puts (_("    -I file :            restore these sectors again"));
    puts (_("    -v [or --version]:   print version"));
    puts (_("    -? [or --help]:      print this message"));
    puts (_("dangerous options:"));
    puts (_("    -g [or --show-geometry]: print the kernel's idea of the geometry"));
    puts (_("    -G [or --show-pt-geometry]: print geometry guessed from the partition table"));
    puts (_("    -x [or --show-extended]: also list extended partitions on output\n"
          "                             or expect descriptors for them on input"));
    puts (_("    -L  [or --Linux]:      do not complain about things irrelevant for Linux"));
    puts (_("    -q  [or --quiet]:      suppress warning messages"));
    puts (_("    You can override the detected geometry using:"));
    puts (_("    -C# [or --cylinders #]:set the number of cylinders to use"));
    puts (_("    -H# [or --heads #]:    set the number of heads to use"));
    puts (_("    -S# [or --sectors #]:  set the number of sectors to use"));
    puts (_("You can disable all consistency checking with:"));
    puts (_("    -f  [or --force]:      do what I say, even if it is stupid"));
    exit(1);
}

static void
activate_usage(char *progn) {
    puts (_("Usage:"));
    printf(_("%s device        list active partitions on device\n"), progn);
    printf(_("%s device n1 n2 ... activate partitions n1 ..., inactivate the rest\n"), progn);
    printf(_("%s -An device    activate partition n, inactivate the other ones\n"), PROGNAME);
    exit(1);
}

static void
unhide_usage(char *progn) {
    exit(1);
}

static char short_opts[] = "cdfgilnqsu:vx?1A::C:DGH:I:LN:O:RS:TU::V";

#define PRINT_ID 0400
#define CHANGE_ID 01000

static const struct option long_opts[] = {
    { "change-id",        no_argument, NULL, 'c' + CHANGE_ID },
    { "print-id",   no_argument, NULL, 'c' + PRINT_ID },
    { "id",         no_argument, NULL, 'c' },
    { "dump",             no_argument, NULL, 'd' },
    { "force",            no_argument, NULL, 'f' },
    { "show-geometry",    no_argument, NULL, 'g' },
    { "increment",        no_argument, NULL, 'i' },
    { "list",             no_argument, NULL, 'l' },
    { "quiet",            no_argument, NULL, 'q' },
    { "show-size",        no_argument, NULL, 's' },
    { "unit",       required_argument, NULL, 'u' },
    { "version",          no_argument, NULL, 'v' },
    { "show-extended",    no_argument, NULL, 'x' },
    { "help",               no_argument, NULL, '?' },
    { "one-only",         no_argument, NULL, '1' },
    { "cylinders",  required_argument, NULL, 'C' },
    { "heads",      required_argument, NULL, 'H' },
    { "sectors",    required_argument, NULL, 'S' },
    { "show-pt-geometry", no_argument, NULL, 'G' },
    { "activate",   optional_argument, NULL, 'A' },
    { "DOS",              no_argument, NULL, 'D' },
    { "DOS-extended",     no_argument, NULL, 'E' },
    { "Linux",            no_argument, NULL, 'L' },
    { "re-read",          no_argument, NULL, 'R' },
    { "list-types",       no_argument, NULL, 'T' },
    { "unhide",     optional_argument, NULL, 'U' },
    { "no-reread",        no_argument, NULL, 160 },
    { "IBM",              no_argument, NULL, 161 },
    { "leave-last",       no_argument, NULL, 161 },
/* undocumented flags - not all completely implemented */
    { "in-order",         no_argument, NULL, 128 },
    { "not-in-order",     no_argument, NULL, 129 },
    { "inside-outer",     no_argument, NULL, 130 },
    { "not-inside-outer", no_argument, NULL, 131 },
    { "nested",           no_argument, NULL, 132 },
    { "chained",          no_argument, NULL, 133 },
    { "onesector",        no_argument, NULL, 134 },
    { NULL, 0, NULL, 0 }
};

static int
is_ide_cdrom_or_tape(char *device) {
      FILE *procf;
      char buf[100];
      struct stat statbuf;
      int is_ide = 0;

      /* No device was given explicitly, and we are trying some
         likely things.  But opening /dev/hdc may produce errors like
           "hdc: tray open or drive not ready"
         if it happens to be a CD-ROM drive. It even happens that
         the process hangs on the attempt to read a music CD.
         So try to be careful. This only works since 2.1.73. */

      if (strncmp("/dev/hd", device, 7))
            return 0;

      snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "/proc/ide/%s/media", device+5);
      procf = fopen(buf, "r");
      if (procf != NULL && fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), procf))
            is_ide = (!strncmp(buf, "cdrom", 5) ||
                    !strncmp(buf, "tape", 4));
      else
            /* Now when this proc file does not exist, skip the
               device when it is read-only. */
            if (stat(device, &statbuf) == 0)
                  is_ide = ((statbuf.st_mode & 0222) == 0);

      if (procf)
            fclose(procf);
      return is_ide;
}

static int
is_probably_full_disk(char *name) {
      struct hd_geometry geometry;
      int fd, i = 0;

      fd = open(name, O_RDONLY);
      if (fd >= 0) {
            i = ioctl(fd, HDIO_GETGEO, &geometry);
            close(fd);
      }
      return (fd >= 0 && i == 0 && geometry.start == 0);
}

#define PROC_PARTITIONS "/proc/partitions"
static FILE *procf = NULL;

static void
openproc(void) {
      procf = fopen(PROC_PARTITIONS, "r");
      if (procf == NULL)
            fprintf(stderr, _("cannot open %s\n"), PROC_PARTITIONS);
}

static char *
nextproc(void) {
      static char devname[120];
      char line[100], ptname[100];
      int ma, mi, sz;

      if (procf == NULL)
            return NULL;
      while (fgets(line, sizeof(line), procf) != NULL) {
            if (sscanf (line, " %d %d %d %[^\n ]",
                      &ma, &mi, &sz, ptname) != 4)
                  continue;
            snprintf(devname, sizeof(devname), "/dev/%s", ptname);
            if (!is_probably_full_disk(devname))
                  continue;
            return devname;
      }

      fclose(procf);
      procf = NULL;
      return NULL;
}     

static void do_list(char *dev, int silent);
static void do_size(char *dev, int silent);
static void do_geom(char *dev, int silent);
static void do_pt_geom(char *dev, int silent);
static void do_fdisk(char *dev);
static void do_reread(char *dev);
static void do_change_id(char *dev, char *part, char *id);
static void do_unhide(char **av, int ac, char *arg);
static void do_activate(char **av, int ac, char *arg);

unsigned long long total_size;

int
main(int argc, char **argv) {
    char *progn;
    int c;
    char *dev;
    int opt_size = 0;
    int opt_out_geom = 0;
    int opt_out_pt_geom = 0;
    int opt_reread = 0;
    int activate = 0;
    int do_id = 0;
    int unhide = 0;
    int fdisk = 0;
    char *activatearg = 0;
    char *unhidearg = 0;

    setlocale(LC_ALL, "");
    bindtextdomain(PACKAGE, LOCALEDIR);
    textdomain(PACKAGE);

    if (argc < 1)
      fatal(_("no command?\n"));
    if ((progn = rindex(argv[0], '/')) == NULL)
      progn = argv[0];
    else
      progn++;
    if (!strcmp(progn, "activate"))
      activate = 1;           /* equivalent to `sfdisk -A' */
#if 0                   /* not important enough to deserve a name */
    else if (!strcmp(progn, "unhide"))
      unhide = 1;       /* equivalent to `sfdisk -U' */
#endif
    else
      fdisk = 1;

    while ((c = getopt_long (argc, argv, short_opts, long_opts, NULL)) != -1) {
      switch (c) {
        case 'f':
          force = 1; break;   /* does not imply quiet */
        case 'g':
          opt_out_geom = 1; break;
        case 'G':
          opt_out_pt_geom = 1; break;
        case 'i':
          increment = 1; break;
        case 'c':
        case 'c' + PRINT_ID:
        case 'c' + CHANGE_ID:
          do_id = c; break;
        case 'd':
          dump = 1; /* fall through */
        case 'l':
          opt_list = 1; break;
        case 'n':
          no_write = 1; break;
        case 'q':
          quiet = 1; break;
        case 's':
          opt_size = 1; break;
        case 'u':
          set_format(*optarg); break;
        case 'v':
          version();
          exit(0);
        case 'x':
          show_extended = 1; break;
        case 'A':
          activatearg = optarg;
          activate = 1; break;
        case 'C':
          U.cylinders = atoi(optarg); break;
        case 'D':
          DOS = 1; break;
        case 'E':
          DOS_extended = 1; break;
        case 'H':
          U.heads = atoi(optarg); break;
        case 'L':
          Linux = 1; break;
        case 'N':
          one_only = atoi(optarg); break;
        case 'I':
          restore_sector_file = optarg; break;
        case 'O':
          save_sector_file = optarg; break;
        case 'R':
          opt_reread = 1; break;
        case 'S':
          U.sectors = atoi(optarg); break;
        case 'T':
          list_types();
          exit(0);
        case 'U':
          unhidearg = optarg;
          unhide = 1; break;
        case 'V':
          verify = 1; break;
        case '?':
        default:
          usage(); break;

        /* undocumented flags */
        case 128:
          partitions_in_order = 1; break;
        case 129:
          partitions_in_order = 0; break;
        case 130:
          all_logicals_inside_outermost_extended = 1; break;
        case 131:
          all_logicals_inside_outermost_extended = 0; break;
        case 132:
          boxes = NESTED; break;
        case 133:
          boxes = CHAINED; break;
        case 134:
          boxes = ONESECTOR; break;

        /* more flags */
        case 160:
          no_reread = 1; break;
        case 161:
          leave_last = 1; break;
      }
    }

    if (optind == argc &&
      (opt_list || opt_out_geom || opt_out_pt_geom || opt_size || verify)) {
      /* try all known devices */
      total_size = 0;
      openproc();
      while ((dev = nextproc()) != NULL) {
          if (is_ide_cdrom_or_tape(dev))
            continue;
          if (opt_out_geom)
            do_geom(dev, 1);
          if (opt_out_pt_geom)
            do_pt_geom(dev, 1);
          if (opt_size)
            do_size(dev, 1);
          if (opt_list || verify)
            do_list(dev, 1);
      }

      if (opt_size)
        printf(_("total: %llu blocks\n"), total_size);

      exit(exit_status);
    }

    if (optind == argc) {
      if (activate)
        activate_usage(fdisk ? "sfdisk -A" : progn);
      else if (unhide)
        unhide_usage(fdisk ? "sfdisk -U" : progn);
      else
        usage();
    }

    if (opt_list || opt_out_geom || opt_out_pt_geom || opt_size || verify) {
      while (optind < argc) {
          if (opt_out_geom)
            do_geom(argv[optind], 0);
          if (opt_out_pt_geom)
            do_pt_geom(argv[optind], 0);
          if (opt_size)
            do_size(argv[optind], 0);
          if (opt_list || verify)
            do_list(argv[optind], 0);
          optind++;
      }
      exit(exit_status);
    }

    if (activate) {
      do_activate(argv+optind, argc-optind, activatearg);
      exit(exit_status);
    }
    if (unhide) {
      do_unhide(argv+optind, argc-optind, unhidearg);
      exit(exit_status);
    }
    if (do_id) {
        if ((do_id & PRINT_ID) != 0 && optind != argc-2)
        fatal(_("usage: sfdisk --print-id device partition-number\n"));
      else if ((do_id & CHANGE_ID) != 0 && optind != argc-3)
        fatal(_("usage: sfdisk --change-id device partition-number Id\n"));
      else if (optind != argc-3 && optind != argc-2)
        fatal(_("usage: sfdisk --id device partition-number [Id]\n"));
      do_change_id(argv[optind], argv[optind+1],
                 (optind == argc-2) ? 0 : argv[optind+2]);
      exit(exit_status);
    }
      
    if (optind != argc-1)
      fatal(_("can specify only one device (except with -l or -s)\n"));
    dev = argv[optind];

    if (opt_reread)
      do_reread(dev);
    else if (restore_sector_file)
      restore_sectors(dev);
    else
      do_fdisk(dev);

    return 0;
}

/*
 *  H. Listing the current situation
 */

static int
my_open (char *dev, int rw, int silent) {
    int fd, mode;

    mode = (rw ? O_RDWR : O_RDONLY);
    fd = open(dev, mode);
    if (fd < 0 && !silent) {
      perror(dev);
      if (rw)
            fatal(_("cannot open %s read-write\n"), dev);
      else
            fatal(_("cannot open %s for reading\n"), dev);
    }
    return fd;
}

static void
do_list (char *dev, int silent) {
    int fd;
    struct disk_desc *z;

    fd = my_open(dev, 0, silent);
    if (fd < 0)
      return;

    z = &oldp;

    free_sectors();
    get_cylindersize(dev, fd, dump ? 1 : opt_list ? 0 : 1);
    get_partitions(dev, fd, z);

    if (opt_list)
      out_partitions(dev, z);

    if (verify) {
      if (partitions_ok(z))
        warn(_("%s: OK\n"), dev);
      else
        exit_status = 1;
    }
}

static void
do_geom (char *dev, int silent) {
    int fd;
    struct geometry R;

    fd = my_open(dev, 0, silent);
    if (fd < 0)
      return;

    R = get_geometry(dev, fd, silent);
    if (R.cylinders)
      printf(_("%s: %ld cylinders, %ld heads, %ld sectors/track\n"),
             dev, R.cylinders, R.heads, R.sectors);
}

static void
do_pt_geom (char *dev, int silent) {
    int fd;
    struct disk_desc *z;
    struct geometry R;

    fd = my_open(dev, 0, silent);
    if (fd < 0)
      return;

    z = &oldp;

    free_sectors();
    get_cylindersize(dev, fd, 1);
    get_partitions(dev, fd, z);

    R = B;

    if (z->partno != 0 && get_fdisk_geometry(z)) {
          R.heads = F.heads;
          R.sectors = F.sectors;
          R.cylindersize = R.heads * R.sectors;
          R.cylinders = (R.cylindersize == 0) ? 0 :
                R.total_size / R.cylindersize;
    }

    if (R.cylinders)
      printf(_("%s: %ld cylinders, %ld heads, %ld sectors/track\n"),
             dev, R.cylinders, R.heads, R.sectors);
}

/* for compatibility with earlier fdisk: provide option -s */
static void
do_size (char *dev, int silent) {
    int fd;
    unsigned long long size;

    fd = my_open(dev, 0, silent);
    if (fd < 0)
      return;

    if (disksize(fd, &size)) {
      if (!silent) {
          perror(dev);
          fatal(_("Cannot get size of %s\n"), dev);
      }
      return;
    }

    size /= 2;                /* convert sectors to blocks */

    /* a CDROM drive without mounted CD yields MAXINT */
    if (silent && size == ((1<<30)-1))
      return;

    if (silent)
      printf("%s: %9llu\n", dev, size);
    else
      printf("%llu\n", size);

    total_size += size;
}

/*
 * Activate: usually one wants to have a single primary partition
 * to be active. OS/2 fdisk makes non-bootable logical partitions
 * active - I don't know what that means to OS/2 Boot Manager.
 *
 * Call: activate /dev/hda 2 5 7    make these partitions active
 *                            and the remaining ones inactive
 * Or:   sfdisk -A /dev/hda 2 5 7
 *
 * If only a single partition must be active, one may also use the form
 *       sfdisk -A2 /dev/hda
 *
 * With "activate /dev/hda" or "sfdisk -A /dev/hda" the active partitions
 * are listed but not changed. To get zero active partitions, use
 * "activate /dev/hda none" or "sfdisk -A /dev/hda none".
 * Use something like `echo ",,,*" | sfdisk -N2 /dev/hda' to only make
 * /dev/hda2 active, without changing other partitions.
 *
 * A warning will be given if after the change not precisely one primary
 * partition is active.
 *
 * The present syntax was chosen to be (somewhat) compatible with the
 * activate from the LILO package.
 */
static void
set_active (struct disk_desc *z, char *pnam) {
    int pno;

    pno = asc_to_index(pnam, z);
    if (z->partitions[pno].ptype == DOS_TYPE)
          z->partitions[pno].p.bootable = 0x80;
}

static void
do_activate (char **av, int ac, char *arg) {
    char *dev = av[0];
    int fd;
    int rw, i, pno, lpno;
    struct disk_desc *z;

    z = &oldp;

    rw = (!no_write && (arg || ac > 1));
    fd = my_open(dev, rw, 0);

    free_sectors();
    get_cylindersize(dev, fd, 1);
    get_partitions(dev, fd, z);

    if (!arg && ac == 1) {
      /* list active partitions */
      for (pno=0; pno < z->partno; pno++) {
          if (z->partitions[pno].p.bootable) {
            lpno = index_to_linux(pno, z);
            if (pno == linux_to_index(lpno, z))
              printf("%s\n", partname(dev, lpno, 0));
            else
              printf("%s#%d\n", dev, pno);
            if (z->partitions[pno].p.bootable != 0x80)
              warn(_("bad active byte: 0x%x instead of 0x80\n"),
                   z->partitions[pno].p.bootable);
          }
      }
    } else {
      /* clear `active byte' everywhere */
      for (pno=0; pno < z->partno; pno++)
          if (z->partitions[pno].ptype == DOS_TYPE)
            z->partitions[pno].p.bootable = 0;

      /* then set where desired */
      if (ac == 1)
        set_active(z, arg);
      else for(i=1; i<ac; i++)
        set_active(z, av[i]);

      /* then write to disk */
      if (write_partitions(dev, fd, z))
        warn(_("Done\n\n"));
      else
        exit_status = 1;
    }
    i = 0;
    for (pno=0; pno < z->partno && pno < 4; pno++)
      if (z->partitions[pno].p.bootable)
      i++;
    if (i != 1)
      warn(_("You have %d active primary partitions. This does not matter for LILO,\n"
         "but the DOS MBR will only boot a disk with 1 active partition.\n"), i);
}

static void
set_unhidden (struct disk_desc *z, char *pnam) {
    int pno;
    unsigned char id;

    pno = asc_to_index(pnam, z);
    id = z->partitions[pno].p.sys_type;
    if (id == 0x11 || id == 0x14 || id == 0x16 || id == 0x17)
      id -= 0x10;
    else
      fatal(_("partition %s has id %x and is not hidden\n"), pnam, id);
    z->partitions[pno].p.sys_type = id;
}

/*
 * maybe remove and make part of --change-id
 */
static void
do_unhide (char **av, int ac, char *arg) {
    char *dev = av[0];
    int fd, rw, i;
    struct disk_desc *z;

    z = &oldp;

    rw = !no_write;
    fd = my_open(dev, rw, 0);

    free_sectors();
    get_cylindersize(dev, fd, 1);
    get_partitions(dev, fd, z);

    /* unhide where desired */
    if (ac == 1)
      set_unhidden(z, arg);
    else for(i=1; i<ac; i++)
      set_unhidden(z, av[i]);

    /* then write to disk */
    if (write_partitions(dev, fd, z))
      warn(_("Done\n\n"));
    else
      exit_status = 1;
}

static void
do_change_id(char *dev, char *pnam, char *id) {
    int fd, rw, pno;
    struct disk_desc *z;
    unsigned long i;

    z = &oldp;

    rw = !no_write;
    fd = my_open(dev, rw, 0);

    free_sectors();
    get_cylindersize(dev, fd, 1);
    get_partitions(dev, fd, z);

    pno = asc_to_index(pnam, z);
    if (id == 0) {
      printf("%x\n", z->partitions[pno].p.sys_type);
      return;
    }
    i = strtoul(id, NULL, 16);
    if (i > 255)
      fatal(_("Bad Id %lx\n"), i);
    z->partitions[pno].p.sys_type = i;

    if (write_partitions(dev, fd, z))
      warn(_("Done\n\n"));
    else
      exit_status = 1;
}

static void
do_reread(char *dev) {
    int fd;

    fd = my_open(dev, 0, 0);
    if (reread_ioctl(fd))
      do_warn(_("This disk is currently in use.\n"));
}

/*
 *  I. Writing the new situation
 */

static void
do_fdisk(char *dev){
    int fd;
    int c, answer;
    struct stat statbuf;
    int interactive = isatty(0);
    struct disk_desc *z;

    if (stat(dev, &statbuf) < 0) {
      perror(dev);
      fatal(_("Fatal error: cannot find %s\n"), dev);
    }
    if (!S_ISBLK(statbuf.st_mode)) {
      do_warn(_("Warning: %s is not a block device\n"), dev);
      no_reread = 1;
    }
    fd = my_open(dev, !no_write, 0);

    if (!no_write && !no_reread) {
      warn(_("Checking that no-one is using this disk right now ...\n"));
      if (reread_ioctl(fd)) {
          do_warn(_("\nThis disk is currently in use - repartitioning is probably a bad idea.\n"
               "Umount all file systems, and swapoff all swap partitions on this disk.\n"
               "Use the --no-reread flag to suppress this check.\n"));
          if (!force) {
            do_warn(_("Use the --force flag to overrule all checks.\n"));
            exit(1);
          }
      } else
        warn(_("OK\n"));
    }

    z = &oldp;

    free_sectors();
    get_cylindersize(dev, fd, 0);
    get_partitions(dev, fd, z);

    printf(_("Old situation:\n"));
    out_partitions(dev, z);

    if (one_only && (one_only_pno = linux_to_index(one_only, z)) < 0)
      fatal(_("Partition %d does not exist, cannot change it\n"), one_only);

    z = &newp;

    while(1) {

      read_input(dev, interactive, z);

      printf(_("New situation:\n"));
      out_partitions(dev, z);

      if (!partitions_ok(z) && !force) {
          if (!interactive)
            fatal(_("I don't like these partitions - nothing changed.\n"
                  "(If you really want this, use the --force option.)\n"));
          else
            do_warn(_("I don't like this - probably you should answer No\n"));
      }
      ask:
      if (interactive) {
          if (no_write)
            printf(_("Are you satisfied with this? [ynq] "));
          else
            printf(_("Do you want to write this to disk? [ynq] "));
          answer = c = getchar();
          while (c != '\n' && c != EOF)
            c = getchar();
          if (c == EOF)
            printf(_("\nsfdisk: premature end of input\n"));
          if (c == EOF || answer == 'q' || answer == 'Q') {
            fatal(_("Quitting - nothing changed\n"));
          } else if (answer == 'n' || answer == 'N') {
            continue;
          } else if (answer == 'y' || answer == 'Y') {
            break;
          } else {
            printf(_("Please answer one of y,n,q\n"));
            goto ask;
          }
      } else
        break;
    }

    if (write_partitions(dev, fd, z))
      printf(_("Successfully wrote the new partition table\n\n"));
    else
      exit_status = 1;

    reread_disk_partition(dev, fd);
    
    warn(_("If you created or changed a DOS partition, /dev/foo7, say, then use dd(1)\n"
       "to zero the first 512 bytes:  dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/foo7 bs=512 count=1\n"
       "(See fdisk(8).)\n"));
    
    sync();             /* superstition */
    sleep(3);
    exit(exit_status);
}

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